During a cross-country championship race, Coach Tam cheers on her runners at various locations on the 3-mile course. Toward the middle of the race, Coach Tam shouts out to her

During a cross-country championship race, Coach Tam cheers on her runners at various locations on the 3-mile course. Toward the middle of the race, Coach Tam shouts out to her runners, “Chin up and smile!” Even though the runners were physically exhausted and in pain, they admitted afterward that smiling actually helped them feel more positive. Coach Tam’s strategy is informed by the:
A) cognitive appraisal theory.
B) arousal theory.
C) facial feedback theory.
D) self-determination theory.

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