Natural selection, operating on which of the following genetic changes, most likely resulted in the loss of ventral spines in modern freshwater sticklebacks?

Natural selection, operating on which of the following genetic changes, most likely resulted in the loss of ventral spines in modern freshwater sticklebacks?
A) duplication of the Pitx1 gene
B) deletion of the Pitx1 gene
C) point mutations in the Pitx1 gene
D) silencing of the Pitx1 gene

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